'7> THE TRANSACTIONS ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY LONDON. NE-W SERIES. VOL. II. LONDON: PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY C. ROWORTH AND SONS, BELL YARD, FLEET STREET. SOLD BY LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN AND LONGMANS, PATERNOSTER ROW. 1852—1853. T ( 213 ) XXIII. Monograph of the Gemis Cryptocerus, lelonging to the Group Cryptoceridse— i^amJ/y UyrmmA^- Division Hymenoptera Heterogyna. By F. Smith, Esq. [Read 7th March, 1853.] There is no genus with which we are acquainted amongst the Formkida which exhibits such eccentricities of form as are met within Cryptocerus; indeed, independent of variation in general habit, the differences of the form of parts is so great in some species, that at first sight they would appear to belong to distinct genera: a careful study of a number of individuals soon shows us that these apparently broad distinctions are but modifications ot one normal type of structure. Taking the type of the genus C. atratus, and attentively studying it, we find m the different individuals which follow, some differing in the addition to or dimi- nution of the number of spines which usually arm the head and thorax; others having the shield of the head, or lateral produced margins, terminating more or less suddenly before reaching the posterior angles of the head ; in one instance only do we find the margin continued entirely round, forming the exact model of a dish This expansion appears to be at the expense of ^ diminution of other appendages, the thorax as well as the nodes of the abdo- men are destitute of spines, and all other parts are of the simplest construction. „ , - „ I have thought it desirable to give figures of the sexes of all the species of which I could obtain specimens for that purpose. An additional interest will arise from the discovery of the males of two species; for this valuable information 7J>-« '"•y^^^"' '^^^ industry and the acuteness of observation of Mr. H W Bates, to whom Entomology is under such lasting obligations for the elucida- tion of so many points of obscurity, not the least interesting of which is the discovery of the males of Cryptocerus. From Mr. Bates s notes I copied the following observation: "The three sexes were taken in company in a decaying tree, in which the.r burrows were formed •"• iudging from the number of specimens sent— two males and about a dozen of each of the other sexes-we may reason- ably conclude that their societies are not very numerous. In their habits we have been informed by Lund that the spec.es are com- paratively solitary, lying in wait and springing upon their prey m L manner of a hunting spider, to which indeed they bear a striking resemblance. • This note applies to the discovery of the sexes of C. elupeau,,. 214 Mr. F. Smith's Monoc/raph The number of previously described species appears to be twenty ; to this I now add fifteen, making the total thirty-five. From these I propose to remove the species of the Old World, four in number, and form a new genus for their reception ; and a second new genus I create for two other species, differing very materially from all others in having the abdomen peduncu- lated and rounded in the females, the neuration of their wings being also quite distinct from Cryptocerus. When a knowledge of all the sexes shall have been obtained, it will in all probability be necessary to make further subdivisions. Indeed, I retain in the genus Cryptocerus a species from Adelaide with some reluctance ; but having only one specimen, I leave it there for future investi- gation, being unwilling to destroy it by dissecting. In its antennae I cannot detect more than ten joints, all other neuters having eleven ; the basal joint of the ilagellum is frequently hidden in a cavity at the apex of the scape, but such does not appear to be the case in the species from Adelaide. Having the means of describing for the first time the male and female of a closely allied genus, the Daceton of Perty, 1 have given both descriptions and figures of the sexes ; this genus, in the neuration of the wings, will be found very nearly to agree with the genus Cryptocerus. I have also added to my present memoir a description of a new and allied genus from New Zealand, very remarkable for having only five joints in the antennae of the workers. I have much pleasure in recording still further obligations to Mr. Bates, who discovered the male and female of the genus Daceton ; both sexes are in the collection of the British Museum. I am greatly indebted to my friend Mr. Westwood for the per- mission to describe four new species from his collection ; nine new species are described from specimens in my own cabinet, the possession of which in the first instance induced me to under- take a monograph of the genus Cryptocerus, -Group CRYPTOCERID.S:. Genus 1. Cryptocerus. Formica, pt. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 965, 16 ; Fabr.pt. Syst. Ent. S95 ; Spec. Ins. i. 310; Ent. Syst. ii. S69, 54; Oliv. End. Meth. vi. 500 ; Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 272. Cryptocerus, Latr. Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. xiii. 260 ; Gen. Crust. Ins. 132; Fabr. Syst. Piez. 418; Klug, Entom. Monog. 200; St. Farg. Hym. i. 170; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 424. of the Genus Cryptocerus. 215 Sexes three ; female and worker furnished with a sting, sides of the head expanded, partly concealing the eyes, having on each side beneath the produced margin a longitudinal channel before the eyes ; antennae stout, clavate, reposing in the lateral channel ; scape of the antennae grooved beneath for the reception of the basal joints of the flagellum ; labrum transverse, its anterior margin deeply notched ; labial palpi 3-jointed, each of about equal length ; maxillary palpi 5-jointed, the first joint short, sub- globose, the second about the length of the two following, the apical joint the same length as the third and fourth ; maxillary apical lobe somewhat rounded, slightly produced and pointed at the apex ; superior wings having one marginal and two sub-mar- ginal cells ; and one small discoidal cell, sub-quadrate and narrowed towards the submarginal. Abdonnen elongate in the females ; ovate, or globose in the workers. Males elongate, slender; the head not produced at the sides; ocelli prominent (smaller in the females and wanting in the workers) ; wings ample, neuration as in the females ; legs elongate ; abdomen small, attached to the thorax by two basal nodes. Obs. — Latrielle in his Gen. Crust, et Ins. iv. p. 132, says the labial palpi consist of four joints. I have examined both labial and maxillary palpi of females and workers of C. atratus, under a powerful microscope, and can only detect three labial and five maxillary joints in the palpi. Fabricius, Syst. Piez., p. 419, gives labial palpi 4-jointed, maxillary palpi 6-jointed. 1. Cryptocerus atratus. (PI. XIX. figs. 1, 2.) Formica atratus, Linu. Syst. Nat. i. 965, 16 ; Fab. Syst. Ent. 395, 24 ; Spec. Ins. i. 493, 33 ; Mantis. Ins. i. 310, 40; Ent. Syst. ii. 363, 54; Oliv. Encycl. Meth. vi. 609 ; Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 272, tab. xii. fig. 74 a. Formica quadridens, De Geer, Ins. iii. 609, 7, tab.31, fig. 17 — 20. Cryptocerus marginatus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 419, 2, $. atratus, Latr. Hist. Nat. xiii. 260, tab. cii. fig. 1 ; Fabr. Syst. Piez. 418, 1 j Klug, Entora. Monog. 200, 1 ; St. Farg. Hym. i. 1 70, 1 ; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim, 424, tab. 69, fig. 3; Spin. Mem. Acad. Torino. (Ser. Sec.) Tom. xii. I. 63. Hab. Brazil ; Cayenne ; Surinam. 216 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph 2. Cryptocerus dubitatus, new sp. (PL XX. fig. 1.) Male. — Length 6 lines. Head and thorax black, rugose-punc- tate ; the stemtnata placed forwards on the vertex ; antenna; ferruginous. Thorax, the collar produced at the anterior angles into a short acute tooth ; the metathorax is also produced at the posterior angles into a sharp spine ; the wings ferruginous. Legs ferruginous, the coxae and trochanters black. Abdomen, the two nodes black, the rest ferruginous. This insect was in my possession some time before Mr. Bates discovered the male of C. clypeatus. I had placed it with " C. atratus" as being probably its male, but I had no other evidence of its being a male Cryptocerus than the circumstance of its agree- ing in the neuration of the wings with that genus ; from its size 1 still suspect it to be the male of " atratus," I have seen no second example. Hab. Brazil. 3. Cryptocerus Mthiops, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 9.) Neuter. — Length S J lines. Black, opaque, lateral margins of the head dilated, and slightly raised, within which is an indistinct longitudinal ferruginous stripe ; at the posterior angles of the head are two acute spines, and in front of each eye, beneath the dilated margin, is a short tooth visible from above ; at the vertex of the head are also two minute spines. At the anterior angles of the thorax is a short spine or tooth, behind which is a stout elongate spine, bidentate at the apex ; the posterior angles are also armed with acute spines, which curve outwardly ; the nodes of the abdomen unarmed ; abdomen globose, deeply emar- ginate in front, the emargination receiving the posterior node, The head, thorax and nodes of tlie abdomen have distant large shallow punctures ; abdomen very delicately shagreened, polished on the disc, and having a few scattered punctures. Hab. Brazil. In the Collection of the British Museum, and of my own. 4. Cryptocerus oculatus. Cryptocerus oculatus, Spin. Mem. Acad. Torino, ser. 2m. tom.xii. I. 65. Hab. Brazil. of the Genus Crt/ptocerus. 217 5, Cryptocerus clypeaius. (PI. XXI. fig. 1, 2, 5 & 6.) Gryptocerus clypeatus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 420, 3, (worker) ; Perty, Delec. ; Klug, Entom. Monog. 207, 6; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 426, 6. Male. — Length 3| lines. Head and thorax black, rugose, and having on the disc of the thorax a thinly scattered fulvous pubes- ence; antennae and legs pale ferruginous; wings sub-hyaline, nervures pale testaceous, stigma ferruginous ; a dark cloud com- mences just within the first sub-marginal cell, occupies the mar- ginal one, and passes along the anterior margin to the apeK of the wing. Abdomen ferrugineo-testaceous, highly polished, the first node black, the second stained at the sides. Female. — Length 6 lines. Entirely of a reddish-yellow, smooth and shining ; the flagellura of the antennae fuscous ; the lateral margins of the head raised, at the posterior angles a short acute spine, another acute spine immediately behind each posterior sterama; the anterior angles of the thorax acute; the lateral angles of the metathorax produced into stout obtuse spines, disc of the thorax somewhat flattened. Wings sub-hyaline, the nervures at the base of the wings pale, darker towards their apex ; a dark cloud occupies the marginal cell and passes off along the anterior margin of the wing to the apex ; the nervures of the wings have a narrow cloud running their entire length. Abdomen elongate, flattened above, having at the basal and apical angles an ovate yellow macula, surrounded by a fuscous ring. Hab. Brazil (Santarem). H. W. Bates, Esq. In the British Museum, and other Collections. 6. Cryptocerus membranaceus. Reddish-brown, punctured ; head and thorax spinose, the abdo- men having a pale membranaceous margin. Cryptocerus membranaceus, Klug, Ent. Monog. ; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 426. (Worker.) Length 3 lines. Hab. Brazil. 7. Cryptocerus quadriguttaius. Reddish-brown : abdomen ovate, and having four large yellow spots, and between the pairs a transverse black band. Cryptocerus ii-gultalus, Gu6r. Icon. R. Anim. 425. (Worker.) Length 3| lines. . Hab. Columbia ; Bolivia ; Amazons, Brazil. 218 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph 8. Cri/ptocerus elongatus. Black, elongate ; thorax anteriorly and posteriorly bispinose. Cryptocerus elongatus, Klug, Entom. Monog. $ ; Guerin, Icon. R. Anira. 42C. Length 5 lines. Hab. Brazil (Para). 9. Cryptocerus pallens. Pallid, depressed ; head and thorax angulate ; petiole very short, sub-spinose. Cryptocerus pallens, Klug, Ent. Monog.; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. Length ]J line. Hab. Brazil. 10. Cryptocerus argentatus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 7.) Female, — Length 5 lines. Shining black : head finely and dis- tantly punctured, rounded in front, and convex above ; the stem- mata placed in a triangle, wide apart ; the lateral raised margins of the head narrow, commencing in front opposite the base of the mandibles, and gradually narrowing backwards to the pos- terior angles of the head, which are acute ; prothorax acute at the anterior lateral angles, the metathorax on each side at the posterior angles forming a long spine curving slightly upwards ; the first node of the abdomen produced on each side into a sharp stout spine curving upwards ; the second node also has anteriorly on each side a stout acute spine curving upwards ; the abdomen very smooth and shining, and having on each side, nearly touching the basal angle, an ovate yellow macula, which is sprinkled over with silvery scales or hairs ; the apical segments are covered with silvery hairs ; the wings fusco-hyaline, the thorax minutely and distantly punctured, the legs are sprinkled with short silvery hairs above. Hab. Columbia. In my own Collection. 11. Cryptocerus D'Orblgnyanus, Westw. MSS., new sp. - (PI. XIX. fig. 5.) Female. — Length 4 lines. Black : head and thorax covered, with shallow punctures, the abdomen delicately and very closely punctured, the entire insect sprinkled with minute golden hairs ; the produced lateral margins of the head rufo-testaceous an- of the Genus Cryptocerus. 219 teriorly, the mandibles and antennae of the same colour. Thorax, the anterior and posterior angles acute, forming short spines ; wings slightly fuscous, stigma fuscous, nervures pale testaceous ; legs ferruginous. The first node of the abdomen produced in the middle laterally into a short acute spine, the second node has on each side anteriorly a recurved spine. Abdomen elongate, narrowing slightly towards the base. Plab. South America. Of this species I have only seen the single specimen kindly lent to me by Mr. Westwood for description. 12. Cryptocerus quadrimaculatus. (PL XIX. fig. 8.) Black, elongate ; tlie head convex above, rounded in front, the abdomen having four yellow maculae. Cryptocerus quadrimaculatus, Klug, Ent. Monog. 5; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 426. Length 3J lines. Hab. Brazil. In my own Collection. 13. Cryptocerus depressus. Black : the head anteriorly testaceous at the sides, posteriorly bispinose ; the petiole spinose. Cryptocerus depressus, Klug, Ent. Monog. ; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 426. Length 2 lines. Hab. Rio Janeiro. 14. Cryptocerus umbraculalus, Rufo-testaceous, margins of the head flavescent, thorax having a spine at the anterior angles ; abdomen ovate, yellow, and having two transverse black stripes connected by a central stripe. Cryptocerus umbraculatus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 420, 4 ; Klug, Entom. Monog. 210, 8 ; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 426, 8. Length 4| lin. Hab. South America. 15. Cryptocerus femor alls, West. MSS., new sp. (PI, XX. fig. 3.) Neuter. — Length 2| lines. Black: the head, thorax and legs covered with shallow punctures, each containing a minute glitter- ing scale or hair ; the lateral margins of the head expanded before 220 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph the eyes, the margin testaceous, the hinder angles acute ; tlie antennae sprinkled with glittering hairs ; the sides of the thorax in front testaceous, the anterior portion transverse quadrate, behind which the sides are deeply notched, the notch containing a curved spine ; the metathorax transverse, its anterior margin arched, the lateral and posterior margins curved inwards, the posterior angles produced into a sharp spine ; the nodes of the abdomen transverse, armed on each side with a sharp spine which is bent backwards ; legs four-sided, the section of which is a square. Abdomen somewhat heart-shaped, narrowly margined; longitudinally and finely rugulose, most strongly so at the base. Hab. Columbia. This species is in the Collection of J. O. Westwood, Esq., who kindly lent it me for description. 16. Cryptocerus cordaius, newr sp. (PI. XXI. fig. 3.) Worker. — Length S lines. Black, finely punctured, thinly covered with glittering silvery scales; the head deeply emarginate in front, the sides rounded anteriorly, notched on each side over the eyes; the head truncate posteriorly, the lateral angles slightly obliquely truncate; — the head rufo-testaceous on each side ante- riorly. The thorax rounded in front, produced laterally into a flattened margin, the angles of which are acute anteriorly, the sides curved and notched posteriorly, forming a small sharp tooth on each side, between vphich is a transverse suture ; the posterior portion of the thorax is bidentate on each side, the anterior tooth beinnf the largest, and curving slightly backwards ; the basal margin of this portion of the thorax notched on each side, forming a blunt tooth in the centre. The two nodes of the abdomen are transverse, the anterior one being the widest; each is produced laterally into teeth or spines, which are bent backwards ; the abdomen is heart-shaped, slightly margined at the base, the basal margins laterally testaceous. Hab. Santarem, Brazil. Mr. Bates, in a note on this species, observes, "Swarms of this small species, all individuals of the same size, are seen on branches and flowers of Byrsominse and other trees on dry sandy campos." The single specimen sent is unique in the Collection of the British Museum. 17. Cryptocerus pusillus. (PI. XX. fig. 8.) Black : head dilated before the eyes on each side, the sides anteriorly testaceous. of the Genus Cryptocerus. 221 Cryptocerus pusillus, Klug, Ent. Monog. ; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 426. Length 2 J lines. Hab. Brazil ; Demerara. In the Collection of the British Museum, and of J. O. West- wood, Esq. 18. Cryptocerus minuius. Black : head depressed, marginate, the margin pale testaceous, thorax having anteriorly on each side a bent spine ; abdomen margined at the base, the margin pale testaceous. Length 2 lines. .Hab. S. America. Cryptocerus minutus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 425, 5 ; Klug, Entom. Monog. 202, 2 ; Guer. Icon. R. Anim. 426, 2. 19. Cryptocerus Pinelii. Dark brown: head and thorax without spines, petiole and ab- domen pale yellow ; the entire insect punctate. Cryptocerus Pinelii, Guerin, Icon. R. Anira. 425. Length 3J lines. Hab. Moro-Gueimado, Brazil. 20. Cryptocerus complanatus. Opaque black ; posterior angles of the head without spines ; thorax wide in front, narrowing towards the abdomen ; nodes of the abdomen transverse ; spined at the sides ; abdomen ovate. Cryptocerus complanatus, Guer. Icon. R. Anim. 424 (Neuter). Length 3^ lines. Hab. Cayenne. 21. Cryptocerus Pavonii, Cryptocerus Pavonii, Latr. Gen. Crust. Ins. 132. Hab. South America. 22. Cryptocerus unimaculatus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 9.) Neuter. — Length 3 lines. Head and thorax black ; disc of the head rugose, most deeply so on the vertex; the raised lateral margins ferruginous, terminating opposite the eyes ; scape of the antennae and the flagellum beneath ferruginous ; the thorax rugose, the anterior angles produced into a stout blunt spine ; the 222 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph posterior angles have also a longer stout acute spine, the legs black ; the head and thorax are both sprinkled with short bright golden hairs ; each node of the abdomen has on each side an acute spine. Abdomen ovate, emarginate at the base ; an oblong black stripe runs from the apex to the middle of the abdomen; beneath black. Hab. Brazil. This appears to be a rare species ; I have only seen the single specimen in my own Collection. 23. Cryplocerus dlscocephalus, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 2.) Neuter. — Length 2J lines. Entirely ferruginous, the entire margin of the head curving upwards, forming the exact model of a dish or bowl, which has a few large scattered punctures within ; the posterior angles of the head produced laterally, and bent slightly upwards ; the thorax without spines, somewhat oblong- quadrate, but narrower posteriorly ; nodes of the abdomen trans- verse, acute at their outer angles ; abdomen elongate-ovate, deeply emarginate at the base ; legs very short and stout. Hab. Brazil. Of this remarkable species I have only seen two specimens, one in the Collection at the British Museum, and one in my own. 24. Cryptocerus causiicus, Formica caustica, Pohl and Kollar, Braz. Insect. 17. Tab. %. 12. Cryptocerus caustica, Guer. Icon. R. Anim. 426. 25. Cryptocerus elegans, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 3.) ^Neuter, — Length 2J lines. Head, antennae and legs rufo-tes- taceous ; margins of the head broadly expanded at the sides, nar- rowly so behind, and of a pale testaceous hue ; eyes black ; mandibles rufo-testaceous. Thorax elongate, rounded in front, its lateral angles produced into spines curving backwards ; the metathorax has three teeth on each side ; the shoulders and teeth at the sides of the thorax pale testaceous ; the posterior femora testaceous, and having a minute tooth above ; the first node of the abdomen rounded in front, curving outwardly at the sides to half its length, then abruptly curving inwards on each • Mr. H. W. Bates, in a note on this species, observes : — " This pretty little species was found swimming nimbly over the broad leaves of Heticoniic in a moist forest. I have not yet detected its male or female, but suppose its nest to be made in the hollow branches of trees like the other species." of the Genus Cryptocerus. 223 side, forming a narrow footstalk to the broad portion ; the second is somewhat square, having on each side anteriorly a broad bent flattened spine. Abdomen heart-shaped, having on each side, at the base, a large ovate pale testaceous macula, and a little beyond the middle on each side a pale transverse stripe : the entire insect is covered with shallow punctures, and sprinkled with very short glittering hairs or scales. Hab. Columbia ; Brazil (Santarem). H. W. Bates, Esq. In the Collections of the British Museum, and of J. O. West- wood, Esq, 26. Cryptocerus hcemorrkoldalis. Opaque-black : the head without spines, large and nearly square, the lateral margins of the head ferruginous ; abdomen ovate, the sides marginate, at the apex a large red spot, divided in the middlle by a longitudinal black line. Formica hamorrhoidalis, Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 276. Cryptocerus hcemorrhoidalis, St. Farg, H3rm, I. 172, 3. Length 2J lines. Hab. St. Domingo. 27. Cryptocerus Araneolus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 4.) Neuter. — I i lines. Dull reddish brown : the lateral margins of the head raised and expanded before the eyes ; at the eyes the margins are notched, the raised margins ferruginous, the extreme apex of the antennae pale testaceous. Thorax oblong, gradually narrowing towards the abdomen, divided in the middle by a trans- verse suture, the lateral margins crenulated. Legs short and stout ; the nodes of the abdomen transverse, and furnished on each side with an acute spine. Abdomen ovate, marginate, and emar- ginate at the base ; the whole insect covered with shallow punc- tures, each of which contains a bright golden hair. Hab. St. Vincent's. In the Collection of J. O. Westwood, Esq. and in my own. 28. Cryptocerus rimosus. Cryptocerus rimosus, Spin. Mem. Acad. Torino, Tom. xii. I. 65. Hab. Brazil. 29. Cryptocerus pubescens, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 4.) Female. — Length 2 lines. Brown-ferruginous : the head late- rally in front has a slightly raised margin. Thorax quadrate, the anterior margin waved, the sides curving outwardly, the 224 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph posterior margin curving invvards and waved, notched in the middle, the four angles acute. A little before the posterior angles the sides produced into an angular tooth. The meta- thorax has on each side an acute spine, which as well as the first node of the abdomen is hidden by the projection of the disc ; the second node half-circular or half-moon shaped. Ab- domen nearly rotundate, a dark stain runs down the centre, acute at the base and gradually widening to the margin of the first segment ; the entire insect is covered with erect pale hairs. Hab. Adelaide, N. S. Wales. In my own Collection. Genus 2. Meranoplus. Sexes three, male, female and worker, or neuter. Female. — Sides of the head not expanded ; antennae inserted before and above the eyes on each side at the base of the clypeus, the basal joint or scape nearly as long as the flagellum ; in repose, received into a lateral channel or groove above the eyes in the sides of the head, passing beyond them and nearly reaching the vertex. Wings, the superior pair having one marginal and one complete sub-marginal cell, each being of about equal length ; the discoidal cell sub- quadrate. Abdomen somewhat heart-shaped, attached to the thorax by two elongate nodes. 1. Meranoplus bicolor. (PI. XX. fig. 6.) Head and thorax ferruginous ; abdomen black ; head without spines ; metathorax posteriorly armed with a long acute spine on each side. Cryptocerus bicolor, Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 425. Length If lines. Hab. Pondicherry. 2. Meranoplus pet'iolalus, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 7.) Female. — Length 3| lines. Head bright ferruginous ; antennas dark rufo-testaceous ; the thorax of the same colour, longitudi- nally rugose, the lateral margins of the thorax parallel to the base of the wings, from whence the sides are narrowed considerably to the metathorax, whicli on each side has a short tooth ; wings pale, nervures pale ferruginous ; legs ferruginous ; the nodes of the abdomen sub-quadrate ; abdomen ovate, rufo-testaceous, and irre- gularly stained with black ; beneath black, and having a large rufous patch in the middle, which has a black stain in the centre ; the entire insect has a thinly scattered erect pale pubescence. Hab. Brazil. of the Genus Cryptocervs. 225 A rare species apparently. I have only seen the single speci- men in my own Collection. Genus Cataulacus, new gen. Sexes three, male, female and neuter, or worker. Female.— The sides of the head not expanded, the eyes not concealed. An- tennae inserted before the eyes ; in repose, received into an oblique groove or channel in the cheek ; scape of the antennae grooved beneath for the reception of the basal portion of the flagellum. Wings having one marginal and one complete sub-marginal cell, the discoidal cells obsolete. Abdomen elongate in the female, ovate in the workers or neuters. Male not known. 1. Cataulacus Taprohance, Westw. MSS„ new sp. (PI. XX, fig- 10.) Neuter.— -Length 2 lines. Black : the head and thorax roughly longitudinally rugose, the vertex behind, and a small central por- tion of the thorax, anteriorly transversely rugose ; the antennae rufo-testaceous. the scape and extreme apex pale ; sides of the head and thorax crenulated, the posterior angles of the latter armed with a stout spine ; the tibiae and tarsi rufo-testaceous. The nodes of the abdomen coarsely sculptured ; abdomen ovate, finely shagreened, and longitudinally and delicately rugose at the base and sides, the rugosity consisting of a series of raised striae which do not reach the middle of the abdomen excepting at the sides. Hab. Ceylon. This species is unique in the Collection of the Entomological Society, to which it was presented by Mr. G. H. K. Thwaites, who captured it in Ceylon. 2. Cataulacus Guineensis, Westw. MSS., new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 5.) A^eiiier.— Length Sf lines. Black : head and thorax longitudi- nally rugose-striate, most deep and coarse on the thorax; sides of the head crenulate, the scape ferruginous, apical joint of the flagellum testaceous, the palpi testaceous. Thorax, the anterior portion transverse and inclining downwards towards the head, the sides crenulate, the posterior angles acute ; behind the transverse portion the thorax becomes much narrower towards the meta- thorax, from which it is separated by a transverse deep suture; VOL. II. N.S. PART VII. JAN, 1854. 226 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph posterior angles of the tnetathorax produced into an elongate stout acute spine ; the tibiae and tarsi ferruginous. Abdomen ovate, finely granulate, the nodes deeply and coarsely sculptured ; the entire insect is sprinkled with erect pubescence. Hab. Tropical Western Africa. Unique in the Collection of J. O. VVestwood, Esq., who kindly lent it to me for description. 3. Cataulacus parallelus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 6.) Female. — Length 3J lines. Black : the head longitudinally rugose-striate, the vertex emarginate, the emargination trans- versely rugose-striate ; the scape of the antennas and extreme apex of the flagellum ferruginous. Thorax longitudinally rugose- striate ; the metathorax on each side produced into a stout sharp bent spine, beneath which it is transversely sulcate ; wings tinged with yellow, their nervures pale testaceous ; the tibiae and tarsi ferruginous. The first node of the abdomen coarsely sculptured transversely, the second longitudinally so. Abdomen oblong- quadrate, finely aciculate at the base, beyond which it is delicately shagreened, and has towards the apex a few short scattered pale setae. Hab. Cape of Good Hope. Apparently a rare species ; I have only seen the specimen in my own Collection. 4. Cataulacus granulatus. Formica granulata, Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 275, tab. 1 2, fig. 75. Cryptocerus granulatus, St. Farg. Hymenop. I. 171, 2. Opaque-black, granulated, the posterior angles of the head armed with a spine, sides of the head not produced, the eyes exposed. Length l-f lines. - Hab. India. Genus 3. Daceton. Formica, pt. Latr. Hist. Nat. des Fourm. Daceton, Perty, Delect. An. Art. Sp. 1. Daceton armigerum. (PI. XXI. figs, 1, 2.) Formica armigera, Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 244, tab. ix. fig. 58 (neuter). Attal armigera, Guer; Icon. R. Anim. 221, tab. 69, fig. 2. Daceton armigerum, Perty, Delect. An. Art. Bras. tab. Female. — Pale rufo-testaceous, head heart-shaped, ocelli placed in a triangle on the vertex ; thorax not quite so wide as the head, of the Genus Cryptocerus. 227 the anterior angles produced into short acute spines, the posterior angles armed with short stout obtuse spines ; anterior wings having one elongate marginal cell nearly reaching the apex of the wing, and of nearly equal width throughout, truncate at the apex, one marginal cell complete, and one discoidal cell ; nodes of the abdo- men without spines ; abdomen ovate, pointed at the apex. Male. — Length 5 lines. Head and thorax black ; on the sides of the head and face a little scattered hoary pubescence, the vertex roughly sculptured longitudinally ; the antennae and mouth rufo-testaceous, the former as long as the entire insect. Thorax above having a few long scattered griseous hairs ; the mesothorax has in front a narrow abbreviated smooth oblong space, a similar smooth line is also observable parallel with the tegulae ; the post- scutellum is pale testaceous, wings sub-hyaline, the nervures thick and of a pale testaceous colour, the marginal cell is occupied by a fuscous cloud. Legs pale rufo-testaceous ; the nodes of the abdomen fuscous as well as the sides of the following segment, the rest of the abdomen ferruginous. Hab. Brazil (Santarera). Mr. H. W. Bates. The male and female in the British Museum, the latter also in my own Collection. The male and female were captured by Mr. Bates, who says : — " This species I always find wandering about the trunks of large trees, not in numerous bands, following in regular order, but only a few scattered individuals, apparently wandering each on his own account in pursuit of prey. When observed, they are seen to carry their mandibles wide open at right angles to the axis of their bodies ; and when a stalk of grass or any other article is presented at their heads, they close their jaws with a sudden snap. I do not know where or how they construct their nests. I have never seen it occupied in any regular industry, or associated in great numbers like CEcodoma cephalotes, to which it appears to be allied." Genus 4. Orectognathus, new gen. Head heart-shaped ; eyes prominent, placed forwards on the sides of the head ; mandibles elongate, projecting forwards in a line with the body ; antennae elongate, inserted near the base of the mandibles, 5-jointed in the worker. Thorax narrow, a little longer than the head ; abdomen attached to the thorax by two narrow elongate ovate nodes. a 2 228 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph of Cryptocerus. Sp. 1. Orectognathus antennattis. (PI. XXI. fig. 9.) Neuter. — Pale rufo-testaceous, the mandibles armed at their extremity with two long spines or teeth, the upper one simple, the lower one forked at the apex ; the anterior angles of the thorax have a short acute spine, a second short one is situated about the middle at the sides, and tlie metathorax is armed with two longer slender acute spines ; legs elongate, very pale testaceous. Abdo- men nearly rotundate, slightly flattened, the first node elongate- clavate, the second globose. Hab. New Zealand. In the Collection of the British Museum. EXPLANATION OF PLATES. PLATE XIX. Fig. 1. Cryptoeentt atralus $ ; 1 <x, labium of do.; 1 b, maxilla of do.; 1 c, labrum of do.; 1 d, mandible of do.; \e, labium of do. (ueuler); 1 /, maxilla of do. (neuter). 2. atratus (oeutei). 3. elegans ; 3 a, antenna of do. 4. Araneolus, 5. D* Orbigntfanus, 6. Cataulaeut parallelits ; 6 a, front view of the head of do. 7. Crt/ptaeerus argentatus ; 7 a, antenna of do. 8. guttdrimaeulatus, 9. unimaculatut. PLATE XX. Fig. I. Cryptocerus dubitatui, 2, ducocephalus, 8. femoralit. 4. pubescens; 4 a, antenna of do. 5. CatauUtcus Guiiieetisis ; 6a, underside of the head, showing the grooves for the reception of the antcnnie. 6. Meranoplus bicolor ; 6a, antenna of do. 7. petiotalus ; 7a, antenna of do. 8. Cryptocerui pusiUus ; 8 a, antenna of do, 9. ^thiops, 10. Cataulacus Taprobuna, PLATE XXL Fig. 1 . Cryptocerus clypeatus, g . 2. do. do.' $. 3. cordatus. 4. membranaceus, 5. Head of C. clypeatus (neuter). 6. Thorax of do. 7. Daceton armigerum, ^ . 8. do. do. 2- 9. Orectognathus antennaius (neuter); 9a, mandible of do.; 9b, antenna of do. ; 9 c, metathorax of do. Irani. Eut: Soc.Tol.S.IJ". 5. EL.XIZ. I>ramt.&Z7l^ra,val by Trtd.'^ Smia,.. - 2853.'. Irans.EiLt. Sdc.ToI.S. H.XXL.